Friday, May 31, 2019

Billy Budd Essay -- essays research papers

Billy BuddBy Herman MellvilleHerman Melville&8217s Billy Budd is a classic tale of innocence and evil. The main force of innocence is constantly attacked by the force of evil until the innocence falters. Through the use of many literary devices, Melville shows how sometimes the obvious results do not always occur when they are universe expected. However, he also shows that the force of all that is good and righteous will triumph over evil at the end, even over death.The protagonist, Billy Budd, is the major(ip) force of innocence in the book. Billy is a young man who seems to have everything going for him. He is big, strong, handsome, and he has a personality that draws everyone to him. Everywhere he went he charmed people, gaining the respect of those around him. A great deal of imagery is used describing how aesthetically perfect Billy is. Besides Billy&8217s stutter, he seems absolutely perfect.Billy is a sailor. His original ship was the Rights-Of-Man but he later was impressed by the Bellipotent. Here he becomes a foretopman. As usual he charms everyone. They even call him &8220The Handsome Sailor. On the ship, Billy is respected by everyone except the protagonist, John Claggart. Claggart is extremely jealous and holds considerable amounts of scorn for him. At first he tries to be nice to Billy but soon his true jealousies surface. He begins to scold Billy for insignificant lapses and tries to degrade him. In one instance when Billy spills a bowl of soup, Claggart sardonically says to Billy, &8220Handsome is as handsome did it. Deep inside Claggart also thinks that Billy is secretly plotting against him. When his furor really begins to take over, Claggart starts thinking of ways to prove Billy to be a traitor. Finally his chance came when a guardsman approached Billy in the middle of the night. He asked Billy if he wanted to join a mutiny effort with all the others that were impressed. He was also offered a bribe. Billy became so angry that he almost t hrew the guardsman overboard. However, when Claggart heard of this, he immediately ran straight to professional Vere. Captain Vere was a well-educated, level-headed man. He was stern but he was just. He offered Billy a chance to see his accuser and Billy acce... ...ling him that Billy doesn&8217t deserve to die and that he should be released because everyone knows what kind of guy Billy really is. In the end, though, Captain Vere&8217s duty wins as it probably should, which is the climax of the book. Because of the point-of-view, limited omniscient, it is hard to fully understand Vere&8217s thought process during the whole trial.The irony in the book is kind of subtle but able, nevertheless, to be found. When one is analyzing each character it is shown that the fate of each character is the exact opposite of what is led to be expected by looking at his nature. One would originally think that Claggart would end up being the one that might kill Billy because of the regression he ha d with him. It is strange to think of Claggart as the victim but that was the case. Throughout the book, these instances of literary devices help shape the book into the classic that it is. With all that had happened to Billy, he was a hero even in his death. That helps define the theme of the book. No matter how much the forces of evil tried to bring him down, goodness triumphed over all.

Thursday, May 30, 2019


THE EFFECT OF PEN HOLDING CONDITIONS ON THE HUMOUR RATING OF FUNNY CARTOONS ABSTRACT previous(prenominal) explore concerning the facial feedback hypothesis contends that manipulation of facial expression induces emotional arousal. The aim of the experiment was to determine whether holding a pen in the babble in way that resembles certain facial expression effect humour rating of cartoons rated by participants under one of three conditions. A sample of 60 nave second year students from Monash University was divided into the three treatment conditions to test the hypothesis. There were two separate hypotheses to be tested.Results were not statistically significant and preference hypotheses were not supported however, results did indicate a trend supporting the notions of the hypotheses. Implications of this study show that there are trends to support the facial feedback hypothesis however, inconclusively. Future research should be undertaken to effectively ascertain the validity o f the facial feedback hypothesis, an extension of the James Lange theory of emotion. The James Lange theory suggests that there are three stages related to the get wind of an emotion. The first stage is the physiological response to the stimuli mediated by the autonomic nervous system and can include increased heart beat, sweat forming on the palms and similar symptoms. Following the physiological response is the emotional or cognitive aspect of really realising the emotion which is then followed by the behavioural aspect which denotes what is actually done in response to the stimulus, for example running away. (Buck, 1980, p.811)The facial feedback hypothesis is an extension of the James Lange theory of emotion and contends that emotions are the result of physiological comment rather than physiological reactions being the result of experienced emotions. According to the theory, feedback is taken from muscle activity in the body and is then interpreted by the head word and tr anslated into the feeling of various emotions. For example, rather than a smile being elicited from a feeling of happiness, the facial feedback hypothesis suggests that it is the smile which has caused the feeling of happiness. (Dalton, 2000, p.60) In the past(a) there has been research carried out to test the validity of the facial feedback hypothesis. Laird (1974, cited in Strack, Martin & Stepper. 198... ...tional responses. Consequently, it is important that further research be undertaken to replicate past research and alter the ability to generalize results to the given population. REFERENCESBuck, R. (1980). Nonverbal behavior and the theory of emotion The facial feedback hypothesis. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 38, 811-824Izard, C. E. (1990). The Substrates and Functions of sense Feelings William James and Current Emotion Theory. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 16, 626-635 Larsen, R. J. (1992). Facilitating the Furrowed Brow An Unobtrusive Test o f the Facial Feedback Hypothesis Applied to Unpleasant Affect. Journal of cognition and emotion, 6, 321-338Strack, F., Martin, L., Stepper, S. (1988). Inhibiting and Facilitating Conditions of the Human grimace A Nonobtrusive Test of the Facial Feedback Hypothesis. Journal of personality and social psychology, 54, 768-777Dalton, T. (2000). The developmental roots of consciousness and emotional experience. Consciousness & Emotion, 1, 55-89Winton, W. (1986). The role of facial response in self-reports of emotion A critique of Laird. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 50, 808-812

The Unalterable Human Condition Exposed in Shirley Jacksons The Lotter

The Unalterable Human Condition Exposed in Shirley Jacksons The LotteryThe short story, The Lottery, by Shirley Jackson, managed to capture various human tendencies stemming from the very heart of the unalterable human condition. The willingness to follow custom blindly, the inherent cruelty of humans, and the involuntariness to change were the primary ostracise behaviors depicted in the story. The unalterable human condition is one of the truths of human existence. Throughout the course of history, humans tend to act in the same ways, go back the same mistakes, and end up little better than they were a century before. Although technology has changed, increasing the quality of life, behavior patterns have not changed, decreasing twain the sanctity and quality of life. One may startle to wonder if the human race will ever change its behavior in any much ways than rhetoric. The short story, The Lottery, by Shirley Jackson, managed to capture various human tendencies stemming from the very heart of the unalterable human condition. The willingness to follow tradition blindly, the inherent cruelty of humans, and the unwillingness to change were the primary negative behaviors depicted in the story. People enter into society with certain traditions having long since been established. People are terrified of changing those traditions beca subroutine of the situation that those traditions have been in existence for decades, even centuries. If they have survived that long, people consciously or unconsciously reason, they must be correct. However, that is not necessarily the case. In The Lottery, the tradition must have been at least a century old, as the black box used to choose the lucky winner had been put into use even before Old Man Wa... ...s existed for thousands of years, human beings are still making the same mistakes as they were when the first humans walked the earth. People live and die, empires fount and fall, while human behavior remains the same t he entire time. People ought to learn from the mistakes of the past, not forgetting the things that have gone wrong. The great authors of the world have interpreted advantage of the unalterable human condition, using it to point out the grave errors that the natural behaviors of human beings can lead to. But before humans begin to dwell to such errors, they should remember that the mistakes they have made are not as important as the lessons humans draw from them . . . Works CitedJackson, Shirley. The Lottery. Literature Structure, Sound, and Sense. fifth ed. Ed. Laurence Perrine. San Diego Harcourt, Brace, Jovanovich, Publishers 1998. 180-186

Wednesday, May 29, 2019

Metamorphosis in Sweetheart of the Song Tra Bong :: Things They Carried Essays

Metamorphosis in Sweetheart of the Song Tra Bong The account statement of the Sweetheart of the Song Tra Bong is no exemplary Vietnam war story. It is a story that involves no bloods, guts or glory. This story isnt so such(prenominal) more or less the physical damage caused by war as much as this story is about the emotional changes that effect not only the males. This is a story that with its elaboration and ornamentation shows the destruction of innocence. This story is about an impossible that came true. The story in its simplest form involves two main characters and the storyteller, Rat Kiley, a well-known truth stretcher. The main people that your interest in this story is concerned with are sugar Fossie, a solider with the team of medics that Rat was with, and his girlfriend Mary Anne Belle, a young woman of barely 17 years of age. Mark Fossie and Mary Anne Belle were childhood sweethearts nearly betrothed at birth. While in Nam, Mark came up with a master plan to fly Ma ry Anne ein truthplace to Vietnam to be with him. As men joked one evening about how easy it could be to sneak someone over Mark heard and took this as no joke. He was going to try it He spent almost all of his money to get her over but it paid off,they were reunited. The picture of a halcyon couple they spent most of their time unitedly adn for a while things seemed very normal to them. All they had ever known was being a them and when they were together things just seemed to be right. How blindly we see things when we are surrounded by the arms of the one we love. She was young and curious and being the only women there she was very flirtatious. Mary Anne was a bright girl and she wanted to learn all that she could about the war and the land. Her new found purpose becae to find as much as she could about the culture while she was in it. She often went for nature walks and began to learn the Vietnamese language/culture . Even her personality began to change. But finally she be gan to learn about guns and war. She started to spend her free time cleaning and shooting. This began the downward trail to her becoming a camo wearing jungle woman.

Dangerous Secrets in Tobias Wolff?s Hunters in the Snow Essay -- Tobia

Dangerous Secrets in Tobias Wolffs Hunters in the SnowIn Tobias Wolffs Hunters in the Snow, the three main characters each have secrets which they are concealing despite their friendships. These obscuring truths later(prenominal) cause trouble for each of the characters and go away lead to their destruction. How will their decisions and lies impact their relationships?The first character introduced in the story is tubful. Tub is portrayed as beingness rather large. The reader?s first image of Tub is when Kenny says, ?He looks just like a giant beach ball with a hat on??(117). Tub?s inner conflict is his weight, which he lies about throughout the story. Tub is obviously self conscious about his weight and is in denial about his gluttony. He hides cookies and sandwiches in his clothes, but in the presence of his friends, he acts as if he is on a diet and eats a boiled egg and celery. His friends mock him about his diet and can see that he is non loosing but gaining weight. Later i n the story, Tub finally reveals to frump the truth about his gluttony. Tub admits, ?I?ve even got stuff (snacks) in the paper towel machine at work?Oreos, Mars Bars, Twinkies?(126). I swear that Tub reveals his secret to hotdog because he wants help and he knows that Frank will be understanding. It is after this incident, that Frank takes Tub to a restaurant so he could eat until he was completely full.The second character in the story is Frank. One gets the impression that Frank is very masculine. He repeatedly tells Tub and Kenny things that would make them more of a man. When Tub complains that he is cold, Frank tells him to ?Stop bitching?Get centered?(118). Later, Frank tells Kenny that he is too talkative, as if men should not talk too much. This co... ...he held inside because of the constant mockery from Kenny and Frank, combined with his denial about gluttony, made it easy for him to shoot Kenny. Tub finally stood up for himself and saved himself. When Frank found out t hat Kenny was merely joking, his reaction was unsurprising and unsympathetic as if he knew an incident like that was soon to come and this was foreshadowed by Frank earlier in the story when he told Kenny ?You?re asking for it?(118). Although, the reader does not know exactly how Frank?s and Tub?s lies will impact their lives, one does see how Kenny?s lies will probably cost him his life because the hunters had taken the wrong turn and were not on their way to hospital. subject area CitedWolff, Tobias. Hunters in the Snow. Perrines Literature Structure, Sound,_and Sense. Ed. Thomas R. Arp and Greg Johnson. New York Heinle and Heinle, 2005.

Tuesday, May 28, 2019

Alternative Dispute Resolution Essay -- ADR Business Management Negoti

Alternative Dispute ResolutionConsider carefully the facts of the case topic and advise EagleAviation Ltd. and Aircraft Ltd. of the substitute(a)s to litigation inthe ordinary courts and the advantages and disadvantages of eachalternative row of ADR.This submission will identify and define each form of AlternativeDispute Resolution (ADR) including each of the forms advantages anddisadvantages. It will also compare and contrast each form of ADR andconsider which form or forms would be full to both EagleAviation Ltd and Aircraft LtdAlternative Dispute Resolution or ADR force out be defined as any method ofresolving a legal problem without resorting to the legal process(Darbyshire, 2001). ADR is now becoming more and more favorableparticularly within the court system as an alternative to traditionalforms of litigation (Practice Statement 1994 1 ALL ER 34, Cresswell,J) (Practice Note 1996 3 ALL ER 383 this is as litigation is aprocess that can be costly, time consuming and complicat ed, thereforeADR is an alternative which can be useful to all parties twisty.The leading forms of ADR are Arbitration, mediation, conciliation andnegotiation. ADR is not legally screening with the exception ofArbitration, withal in Mediation when a solution has been reached andagreed by each party once it has been written and signed by theparties involved it does then become a legally binding document. ADRwill tho be successful if both parties involved are in conformity withthe core this of course can become increasingly difficult if theparties refuse to speak to each other, In these cases litigation maybe the only viable solution, however ADR is ideal where it isimportant that each party maintains an unblemished relationship withthe other party involved this is especially important within thebusiness community.Arbitration is sensation of the oldest forms of Alternative DisputeResolution (ADR) it is governed by the 1996 Arbitration Act (AA) andis part of the Advisory, Concili ation and Arbitration Service (ACAS). The Act states in Section One that the quarry of Arbitration is toobtain the fair resolution of disputes by an impartial tribunalwithout necessary delay or expense (Slapper and Kelly, 2003)Arbitration can only transpire if both parties involved agree to it,it is the only form of ADR t... ...ional decision withoutthe situation getting out of hand. Each party will in turn be able tostate what they feel is the nature of the dispute before negotiating asuitable outcome. Negotiation is slightly different to Conciliationand Mediation as the mortal negotiating acts on your behalf andrepresents and looks after your interests, a successful negotiatorwill be able to reach a conclusion where they are able to achieve approximatelyof their parties wishes but without causing the other party to feelthey have lost and therefore detach themselves from the rest of thenegotiation process and then choose to espouse a litigation option.Conciliation can be seen as a form of Mediation in fact some peoplesay that the only difference between them is that Conciliators havemore power than Mediators as they can suggest grounds for compromiseand the possible basis for a conclusive agreement (Slapper and Kelly,2001). Conciliation like Arbitration is part of ACAS and likeMediation tries to allow parties to decide an outcome between themthat suits them both, however it does not always guarantee that adispute will be settled and will not proceed to litigation anyway.

Monday, May 27, 2019

Assignment Questions

FEDERAL TAXATION 307__________________________________ Week 2 Chapter 4 Homework students name 20. Brenda contributeed her son Bart $250,000 to get a brisk home. Brenda did non charge interest on the give. Brenda was required to recognize imputed interest income and Bart had imputed home mortgage interest expense that he deducted as an itemized deduction. Would Brendas and Barts combined total income taxes likely increase or decrease as a result of the imputed interest? 23. On July 1, 1998, when Betty was 65 geezerhood old, she purchased an annuity contract for $108,000.The annuity was to pay Betty $9,000 on June 30 each year for the remainder of her deportment. Betty died on March 31, 2011. What atomic number 18 the make of the annuity on Bettys tax revenue income and taxable income for 2011? 31. Al is a health check doctor who conducts his practice as a sole proprietor. During 2011, he get wordd money of $280,000 for medical utilitys. Of the kernel collected, $40,00 0 was for services provided in 2010. At the end of 2011, Al had draws receivable of $60,000, all for services rendered in 2011.In addition, at the end of the year, Al authoritative $12,000 as an advance payment from a health maintenance organization (HMO) for services to be rendered in 2012. Compute Als stark(a) income for 2011 a)Using the cash rear end of accounting. b)Using the accruement al-Qaida of accounting. c)Advise Al on which method of accounting he should use. 34. Color Paint Shop, Inc. (459 Ellis Avenue, Harrisburg, PA 17111), is an accrual basis taxpayer that paints simple machinemobiles. During the year, the company painted Samuels car and was to receive a $1,000 payment from his indemnification company.Samuel was non satisfied with the work, however, and the indemnity company ref utilise to pay. In December 2011, Color and Samuel agreed that Color would receive $800 for the work, defeat to final approval by the insurance company. In the past, Color had come to terms with customers only to have the insurance company negotiate an charge lesser amount. In May 2012, the insurance company reviewed the claim and compensable the $800 to Color. An IRS agent thinks that Color, as an accrual basis taxpayer, should report $1,000 of income in 2011, when the work was done, and consequently deduct a $200 loss in 2012.Prepare a memo to Susan Apple, a tax partner for whom you are working, with the recommended treatment for the disputed income. 36. Marlene, a cash basis taxpayer, invests in Series EE U. S. Government savings vexs and bank certificates of deposit (CDs). fixate the tax consequences of the by-line on her 2011 gross income. a)On July 1, 2011, she purchased a CD for $10,000. The CD matures on June 30, 2013, and will pay $10. 816, thus yielding a 4% annual return. b)On December 31, 2011, she cashed in a CD and received $11,025. She purchased the CD on January 1, 2010 and the yield to maturity was 5%. )On September 30, 2011, she cashed in Series EE bonds for $10,000. She purchased the bonds in 2011 for $7,025. The yield to maturity on the bonds was 4. 5%. 38. Freda is a cash basis taxpayer. In 2011, she negotiated her salary for 2012. Her employer offered to pay her a total of $250,000 for the year. Freda countered that she would accept $10,000 each month for the 12 months in 2012, and the remaining $130,000 in January 2013. The employer accepted Fredas terms for 2012 and 2013. a)Did Freda actually or constructively receive $250,000 in 2012? b)What could explain Fredas willingness to spread her salary over a eternal period of time? 42. Fran, Gary, and Heidi each have a one-third interest in the capital and profits of the FGH Partnership. Each partner had a capital account of $50,000 at the beginning of the tax year. The partnership profits for the tax year were $240,000. Changes in their capital accounts during the tax year were as follows Fran Gary Heidi Total Beginning ratio$50,000$50,000$50,000$150,000 Withd rawals(25,000)(35,000)(10,000)( 70,000) Additional contributions -0- -0- 5,000 5,000 Allocation of profits 80,000 80,000 80,000 240,000 Ending brace $105,000 $95,000 $125,000$325,000In arriving at the $240,000 of partnership profits, the partnership deducted $1,800 ($600 for each partner) in premiums paid for group term emotional state insurance on the partners. Fran and Gary are 39 years old, and Heidi is 35 years old. Other employees are also eligible for group term life insurance tolerable to their annual salary. These premiums of $10,000 have been deducted in calculating the partnership profits of $240,000. Computer each partners gross income from the partnership for last year. 49. On June 30, 2011, rooftree borrowed $62,000 from his employer. On July 1, 2011, extend used the money as followsInterest-free loan to ridges controlled corporation (operated by Ridge on a part-time basis)$31,000 Interest-free loan to Tab (Ridges son) 11,000 National Bank of Grundy 5% CD ($14,700 due at maturity, June 30, 2012) 14,000 National Bank of Grundy 5. 5% CD ($6,678 due at maturity, June 30, 2012) 6,000 $62,000 Ridges employer did not charge him interest. The applicable Federal rate was 5% throughout the relevant period. Tab had investment income of $800 for the year, and he used the loan government issue to pay medical school tuition. There were no other outstanding loans between Ridge and Tab.What are the effects of the preceding transactions on Ridges taxable income for 2011? 51. Vito is the sole shareholder of Vito, Inc. He is also employed by the corporation. On June 30, 2011, Vito borrowed $8,000 from Vito, Inc. , and on July 1, 2012, he borrowed an spare $4,000. Both loans were due on demand. No interest was charged on the loans, and the Federal rate was 8% for all relevant dates. Vito used the money to purchase a boat, and he had $1, coke of investment income. Determine the tax consequences to Vito and Vito, Inc. in each of the following situations )The loans are considered employer-employee loans. b)The loans are considered corporation-shareholder loans 52. Tess retires after 30 years of service with her employer. She is 66 years old and has contributed $37,800 to her employers qualified pension fund. She elects to receive her retirement benefits as an annuity of $3,000 per month for the remainder of her life. a)Assume that Tess retires in June 2011 and collects six annuity payments this year. What is her gross income from the annuity payments in the starting time year? b)Assume that Tess lives 30 years after retiring.What is her gross income from the annuity payments in the twenty-ninth year? c)Assume that Tess dies after collecting 180 payments. She collected six payments in the year of her death. What are Tesss gross income and deductions from the annuity contract in the year of her death? FEDERAL TAXATION 307__________________________________ Chapter 5 Homework 7. Lime pay Company requires its customers to purchase a credit life insurance policy associated with the loans it makes. Lime is the beneficiary of the policy to the extent of the remaining balance on the loan at the time of the customers death.In 2010, Lime wrote off as uncollectible a $5,000 account receivable from Wally, which included $1,500 of accrued interest. When Wally died in 2011, the life insurance policy was nevertheless in force, and Lime received $3,500. Is the $3,500 of life insurance proceeds received by Lime included in its gross income? 13. Melbas employer provides a tensile spending plan for medical and dental expenses not covered by insurance. Melba contributed $1,500 during 2011, but by the end of December 2011, she still had $300 remaining in the account.Melba intended to get new eyeglasses, but was too busy during the holiday season. Is Melba required to forfeit the balance in her flexible spending account? 23. In 2011, Montgomery County experienced a budget surplus. The County is considering using a portion of the sur plus to rebate part of the real landed estate taxes paid by county real estate owners. What would be the income tax consequences to the real estate owners of receiving the rebate in 2012? 25. Molly is a cash basis taxpayer. In 2011, she earned only $6,500, which was less than the standard deduction and person-to-person exemption.In January 2012, Mollys employer determined that he had miscalculated her December 2011 bonus and that she should have received an additional $1,000 of compensation in 2011. The employer paid Molly the $1,000 in 2012. If Molly had received the $1,000 in 2011, it would not have resulted in any tax liability because her gross income would still have been less than her standard deduction and personalized exemption. In 2012, Molly had over $30,000 in taxable income. Does the tax benefit rule cave in to Mollys situation? Explain. 28. Ed, an employee of the Natural Color Company, suffered from a rare disease that was very expensive to treat.The local media ran several(prenominal) stories about Eds problems, and the family received more(prenominal) than $10,000 in gifts from individuals to help pay the medical tops. Eds employer provided hospital and medical insurance for its employees, but the policy did not cover Eds illness. When it became appa take up that Ed could not pay all of his medical expenses, the hospital canceled the $25,000 Ed owed at the time of his death. After Eds death, his former employer paid Eds widow $12,000 in her time of need. Eds widow also collected $50,000 on a group term life insurance policy paid for by Eds employer. What are Eds and his wifes gross income? 31. What is the taxpayers gross income in each of the following situations? a)Darrin received a salary of $50,000 in 2011 from his employer, Green Construction Associates, Inc. In July 2011, Green gave each employee $2,500 as a bonus for exceeding the monthly sales goals. b)Megan received $10,000 from her employer to help her pay the college expenses o f her daughter. c)Blake received $15,000 from his deceased wifes employer in recognition of her 30 years of faithful service to the company. d)Clint collected $50,000 as the beneficiary of a group term life insurance policy for which his deceased wifes employer had paid the premiums. 33. Ray and Carin are partners in an accounting firm. The partners have entered into an arms length agreement requiring Ray to purchase Carins partnership interest from Carins estate if she dies onward Ray. The price is set at 120% of the book evaluate of Carins partnership interest at the time of her death. Ray purchased an insurance policy on Carins life to fund this agreement. After Ray had paid $45,000 in premiums, Carin was killed in an automobile accident, and Ray collected $800,000 of life insurance proceeds. Ray used the life insurance proceeds to purchase Carins partnership interest. )What amount should Ray include in his gross income from receiving the life insurance proceeds? b)The insuran ce company paid Ray $16,000 interest on the life insurance proceeds during the period Carins estate was in administration. During this period, Ray had left the insurance proceeds with the insurance company. Is this interest taxable? c)When Ray paid $800,000 for Carins partnership interest, priced as specified in the agreement, the fair market value of Carins interest was $1 million. How much should Ray include in his gross income from this bargain purchase? 36.Leigh sued an overzealous bill collector and received the following solvent Damage to her automobile the collector attempted to repossess$ 3,300 Physical damage to her arm caused by the collector 15,000 Loss of income while her arm was healing 6,000 punitory damages 80,000 a)What effect does the settlement have on Leighs gross income? b)Assume Leigh also collected $25,000 of damages for slander to her personal reputation caused by the bill collector misrepresenting the facts to Leighs employer and other creditors. Is this $25 ,000 included in Leighs gross income? 39.The UVW Union and HON Corporation are negotiating contract terms. Assume the union members are in the 28% marginal tax bracket and all benefits are provided on a nondiscriminatory basis. Write a letter to the UVW Union members explaining the tax consequences of the options discussed below. The unions address is 905 Spruce Street, Washington, DC 20227. a)The company would impose a $100 deductible on medical insurance benefits. Most employees incur more than $100 each year in medical expenses. b)Employees would get an additional paid holiday with the same annual income (the same pay but less work). )An employee who did not need health insurance (because the employers spouse works and receives family coverage) would be allowed to receive the cash value of the coverage. 52. Tonya, who lives in Virginia, inherited a $10,000 State of Virginia bond in 2011. Her marginal Federal tax rate is 35%, and her marginal state tax rate is 5%. The Virginia bon d pays 4% interest, which is not subject to Virginia income tax. She can purchase a corporate bond of comparable risk that will yield 6% or a U. S. government bond that pays 5. 6% interest.Tonya does not itemize her deductions. Which investment will provide the greatest after-tax yield? Chapter 6 Homework 7 Nanette is a third-grade teacher. Potential deductions are charitable contributions of $520, personal property taxes on her car of $225, and various supplies purchased for use in her classroom of $225 (none reimbursed by her school). How will these items affect Nanettes income tax return? 11 bloody shame Kate owns a grammatical construction that she leases to an individual who operates a grocery store. Rent income is $10,000 and term of a contract expenses are $6,000.On what Form 1040 schedule or schedules are the income and expenses reported? 20 Gordon anticipates that being positively perceived by the individual who is elected mayor will be beneficial for his line of work. T herefore, he contributes to the campaigns of both the Democratic and the Republican prospects. The Republican candidate is elected mayor. Can Gordon deduct any of the political contributions he made? 25 Are there any circumstances under which taxpayers can rent their personal residence hall and not be required to report the rent income received?Does this have an effect on the deductions allowed? 37 This has not been a uncorrupted year for Betsy. During the year, she had losses from the following sales Personal use sailboat$ 6,000 Personal residence$30,000 Rental house$12,000 Orange, Inc. stock$ 4,000 City of James bonds$ 2,000 a)What is the amount of Betsys deductible losses b) Classify the deductible losses as deductions for or from AGI 45 Vermillion, Inc. , a publicly held corporation (not a TARP recipient), pays the following salaries to its executives Retirement Plan SalaryBonus ContributionCEO$2,000,000$100,000 $80,000 Executive vice chairwoman 1,800,000 90,000 72,000 Treasu rer 1,600,000 -0- 64,000 Marketing vice president 1,500,000 75,000 60,000 Operations vice president 1,400,000 70,000 56,000 Distribution vice president 1,200,000 60,000 48,000 Research vice president 1,100,000 -0- 44,000 Controller 800,000 -0- 32,000 Vermillion normally does not pay bonuses, but after reviewing the results of operations for the year, the board of directors decided to pay a 5% bonus to selected executives.What is the amount of these payments hat =Vermillion may deduct? 47 Terry traveled to a neighboring state to investigate the purchase of 2 ironware stores. His expenses included travel, legal, accounting, and miscellaneous expenses. The total was $52,000. He incurred the expenses in June and July 2011. Under the following circumstances, what can Terry deduct in 2011? a)Terry was in the hardware store transmission line and did not acquire the two hardware stores. b)Terry was in the hardware store business and acquired the two hardware stores and began operating th em on October 1, 2011. )Terry did not acquire the two hardware stores and was not in the hardware store business. d)Terry acquired the two hardware stores, but was not in the hardware store business when he acquired them. Operations began on October 1, 2011. 58 The Robin Corporation is owned as follows Isabelle26% Peter, Isabelles husband19% Sonya, Isabelles mother15% Reggie, Isabelles father25% Quinn, an unrelated party15% Robin is on the accrual basis, and Isabelle and Peter are on the cash basis. Isabelle and Peter each loaned the Robin Corporation $40,000 out of their separate funds.On December 31, 2011, Robin accrued interest at 7% on both loans. The interest was paid on February 4, 2012. What is the tax treatment of this interest expense/income to Isabelle, Peter, and Robin? 59 For each of the following self-sufficient transactions, calculate the recognized gain or loss to the seller and the adjusted basis to the buyer. a)Bonnie sells Parchment, Inc. stock (adjusted basis $17 ,000) to Phillip, her brother, for its fair market value of $12,000 b)Amos sells land (adjusted basis $85,000) to his nephew, Boyd, for its fair market value of $70,000. c)Susan sells a tax-exempt bond (adjusted basis $20,000) to her holly owned corporation for its fair market value of $19,000 d)Ron sells a business truck (adjusted basis $20,000) that he uses in his sole proprietorship to his cousin, Agnes, for its fair market value of $18,500. e)Martha sells her partnership interest (adjusted basis $175,000) in Pearl Partnership to her bighearted daughter, Kim, for $220,000. 61 lee incurred the following expenses in the true tax year. Indicate, in the spaces provided, whether each expenditure is deductible for AGI, from AGI, or not deductible. DeductibleNot Expenses Item For AGI From AGI Deductible a) leewards personal medical expenses. ______ ______________ b) Lees dependent daughters medical expenses _______ ______________ c) Real estate taxes on Lees rental property _______ ______________ d) Real estate taxes on Lees personal residence _______ ______________ e) Real estate taxes on daughters personal residence _______ ______________ f) Lees state income taxes _______ ______________ g) Interest on Lees rental property mortgage _______ ______________ h) Interest on Lees personal residence mortgage _______ ______________ i) Interest on daughters personal residence mortgage _______ ______________ j) Interest on Lees business loans. _______ ______________ k) Lees charitable contributions. ______ ______________ l) Depreciation on Lees rental property _______ ______________ m) Depreciation on auto used in Lees business _______ ______________ n) Depreciation on Lees personal use auto _______ ______________ o) Depreciation on daughters personal use auto _______ ______________ Chapter 7 Homework students name 7Many years ago, Jack purchased 400 shares of Canary stock. During the current year, the stock became worthless. It was determined that the company went un der because several corporate officers embezzled a large amount of company funds. Identify the relevant tax issues for Jack. 22Green Corporation made extensive modifications to a portion of a building so that it could be used to conduct product research. Discuss whether the modification speak tos would qualify as research and experimental expenditures. 29Monty loaned his friend Ned $20,000 ternary years ago.Ned signed a note and made payments on the loan. Last year, when the remaining balance was $11,000, Ned filed for bankruptcy and notified Monty that he would be unable to pay the balance on the loan. Monty treated the $11,000 as a nonbusiness bad debt. Last year Monty had no capital gains and taxable income of $12,000. During the current year, Ned paid Monty $5,000 in satisfaction of the debt. Determine Montys tax treatment for the $5,000 received in the current year. 32Mary, a single taxpayer, purchased 10,000 shares of 1244 stock several years ago at a cost of $20 per share. In November of the current year, Mary received an offer to sell the stock for $12 per share.She has the option of either selling all of the stock immediately or selling half of the stock now and half of the stock in January of next year. Mary will receive a salary of $80,000 for the current year and $90,000 next year. Mary will have long-term capital gains of $8,000 for the current year and $10,000 next year. If Marys goal is to minimize her AGI for the two years, determine whether she should sell all of her stock this year or half of her stock this year and half next year. 35Heather owns a two-story building. The building is used 60% for business use and 40% for personal use. During 2011, a fire caused major damage to the building and its contents. Heather purchased the building for $800,000 and has taken depreciation of $150,000 on the business portion.At the time of the fire, the building had a fair market value of $900,000. Immediately after the fire, the fair market value was $200,000. The insurance recovery on the building was $600,000. The contents of the building were insured for any loss at fair market value. The business assets had an adjusted basis of $220,000 and a fair market value of $175,000. These assets were totally destroyed. The personal use assets had an adjusted basis of $50,000 and a fair market value of $65,000. These assets were also totally destroyed. If Heathers AGI is $100,000 before considering the effects of the fire, determine her itemized deduction as a result of the fire. Also determine Heathers AGI.

Saturday, May 25, 2019

Labor Productivity

Labor productiveness is a key element in the explanation of how the economy works. It is especially important with regard to wages. What follows is some material close pains productivity and investment funds spending that is a reorganization of what is presented in your textbook. Its focus is on the connection between labor productivity and wages. Labor productivity is the value of the product or service you cigaret produce in an hour, day, week or other unit of time. The value you can produce depends on the amount of work-product you can produce and the price at which that product can be sold.When the product is sold, the owner keeps part of that value as profit, and part of it goes to buckle under for other production expenses. The worker then gets the residual as the wage. (The Marxists like to talk about this as exploitation and expropriation of the surplus. ) If you want a sustained emergence in your real wage, you clear to have an increase in labor productivity. However, you may not get a raise just because your labor productivity rises. Labor productivity may rise, in that respectby raising the value of your days work, but the owner can keep the increase as higher(prenominal) profit.This raises two questions How can you get to keep a part of increased labor productivity in a higher wage, and what contributes to systematic increases in labor productivity? First, your boss will want to keep you as a worker, assuming you are a good one. When the business cycle is at a point where actual GDP is near full employment and expanding, other firms will want to hire workers away from the company you work for. You get a raise to keep you where you are. The other way is to have a union that negotiates with the owner for a share of increased labor productivity.To answer the second question, conduct the following. Systematic increases in labor productivity come from investment spending. Investment spending, in the broadest sense, refers to spending that create s more(prenominal) capital for workers to use. The most obvious capital is modernistic plant and equipment and new technology. If workers have better machines (a rise in the capital to labor ratio), they can produce more value per hour. The common sense of this can be seen with a simple example How much land can you till and plant if your capital is just a stone? How much if you have a shovel?How much if you have a shovel and a hoe? How much if you have a tractor and a plow? How about a great big tractor with four wheel drive, 8 or more wheels and huge implements to go with the tractor? The same thinking applies to service work as well. homophile capital is less tangible than machines but very real. Human capital refers to skills, knowledge, analytical ability, and especially the ability to teach yourself new stuff. It is the corner stone of the modern economy. If you dont have much humane capital, the workplace will not pay you too much for your time.Human capital comes throug h telephone line training, formal and informal education, and self-education. The value of a four-year college degree comes mostly from the analytical abilities you develop and the ability to teach yourself new stuff, and you can only develop these skills by practicing, which is what studying is all about. Innovation and new technology come out of the application of human capital to the problem of ever-present scarcity. The problem with acquiring human capital is that the process is expensive, and there are real financial and risk constraints faced by individuals.If individuals were left to pay the entire cost of training and education, there would be less of it than the economy needs because of these constraints. So in modern society, through government, assumes a large chunk of the risk through the subsidization of meditate training and education. TriCounty is a classic example. The taxpayers pay most of the expense of the services provided, and the taxpayers receive the benefit s spread out over time because companies have a more productive labor force to draw from, a labor force with the human capital needed to pursue higher-valued work.This is the case throughout the industrialized world. substructure is the third category of capital. Infrastructure can be public or private. Communications companies are private groundwork. Roads, bridges, and most airports are public infrastructure. Public infrastructure exists when private companies lack an incentive to provide the needed capital. The lack of incentive comes from the lack of ability to exclude non-payers from utilizing the products or service. National defense and public discount stations are examples.When the infrastructure is private, consumers pay for the costs of producing the services in the price they pay for the services. When the infrastructure is public, consumers pay for the services with taxes and sometimes fees. If you want a sustained increase in wages, you have to have an increase in la bor productivity, so you need additional capital, so you need additional investment spending, and if you want more investment spending, you need more savings. If you want more human capital and public infrastructure, you need more tax revenue. There is no way around it.

Friday, May 24, 2019

Case Study on Adidas Supply Chain

Adidas Adidas pic Type Public (AG, FWB ADS) Founded 1924 (registered in 1949)1 Founder(s) Adolf Dassler Headquarters Herzogenaurach, Ger numerous Key people Herbert Hainer (CEO), Erich Stamminger (CEO, Adidas Brand), Igor Landau (Chairman of supervisory authorisation panel) (2009-) Industry Designing and Manufacturing Products Footwear, Sportswear , Sports equipment Toiletries Revenue 10. 799 billion ($15. 6 billion) (2008)2 Operating income 1. 070 billion ($1. billion) (2008)2 Profit 642 million ($933 million) (2008)2 Employees 38,980 (2008)2 wind vanesite www. adidas-group. com Adidas AG (pronounced / di? d? s/ in US English, FWB ADS) is a German- found sports appargonl manufacturer and part of the Adidas Group, which consists of Reebok sportswear company, TaylorMade-adidas play company, and Rockport. Besides sports footwear, the company to a fault produces other crops such as bags, shirts, watches, eyewear and other sports and clothing re new-maded g oods. The company is the largest sportswear manufacturer in Europe and the insurgent biggest sportswear manufacturer in the introduction, after its U. S. play off Nike. 3 The companys clothing and shoe designs typic every last(predicate) in ally feature three parallel bars, and the same motif is incorporated into Adidass electric accredited official logo. The Three Stripes were bought from the Finnish sport company Karhu Sports in the 1950s. 45 The company revenue for 2008 was listed at 10. 799 billion and the 2007 figure was listed at 10. 299 billion, or to the lavishlyest degree US$15. 6 billion. picedit History edit Gebruder Dassler Schuhfabrik Adolf (Adi) Dassler started to produce his own sports shoes in his mothers wash kitchen in Herzogenaurach, Bavaria, after his return from human War I. In 1924, his brother Rudolf (Rudi) Dassler joined the commerce which became Gebruder Dassler Schuhfabrik (Dassler Brothers Shoe Factory) and prospered.The pair started their ven ture in their mothers laun dry out, but at the time, electricity supplies in the town were unreliable, and the brothers sometimes had to persona pedal index finger from a stationary bicycle to run their equipment. 6 By the 1936 Summer Olympics, Adi Dassler drove from Bavaria on one of the worlds first motorways to the Olympic village with a suitcase serious of spikes and persuaded United States sprinter Jesse Owens to use them, the first jockstrapship for an African-American. later on Owens won four gold medals, his success cemented the good reputation of Dassler shoes among the worlds virtually famous sportsmen. Letters from just about the world landed on the brothers desks, and the trainers of other national teams were all interested in their shoes.Business boomed and the Dasslers were selling 200,000 pairs of shoes each(prenominal) year before World War II. 7 Late in World War II, the shoe factory shifted to proceeds of the Panzerschreck anti-tank weapon. 8 edit Company split Both brothers joined the Nazi Party, but Rudolf was meagerly closer to the party. During the war, a growing rift amongst the pair reached a breaking point after an Allied bomb attack in 1943 when Adi and his wife climbed into a bomb shelter that Rudolf and his family were already in The dirty bastards ar back again, Adi said, app arntly referring to the Allied war planes, but Rudolf was convinced his brother meant him and his family. 9 After Rudolf was later picked up by American soldiers and accused of cosmos a member of the Waffen SS, he was convinced that his brother had turned him in. 6 The brothers split up in 1947,10 with Rudi forming a new firm that he cal guide Ruda from Rudolf Dassler, later re fooled Puma, and Adi forming a company formally registered as adidas AG (with lower case lettering) on 18 supercilious 1949. The acronym All Day I Dream About Soccer, although sometimes considered the origin of the adidas name, was applied retroactively. The name is a ctually a portmanteau word formed from Adi (a soubriquet for Adolf) and Das (from Dassler). 1 edit The Tapie affairAfter a period of trouble spare-time activity the death of Adolf Dasslers son Horst Dassler in 1987, the company was bought in 1989 by French industrialist Bernard Tapie, for 1. 6 billion French francs (now 243. 918 million), which Tapie borrowed. Tapie was at the time a famous specialist of rescuing desirerupt companies, an expertise on which he built his fortune. Tapie decided to move production offshore to Asia. He also hired Madonna for promotion. He sent, from Christchurch, New Zealand, a shoe sales representative, to Germany and met Adolf Dasslers descendants (Amelia Randall Dassler and Bella Beck Dassler) and was sent back with a few items to promote the company there. pic pic A pair of Adidas Samba football trainers. In 1992, Tapie was unable to pay the interest from his loan.He mandated the recognition Lyonnais bank to sell Adidas, and the bank subsequently converted the outstanding debt owed into equity of the enterprise, which was unusual as per the prevalent French banking practice. Appargonntly, the state-owned bank had tried to get Tapie out of dire monetary capitulum as a personal favour to Tapie, reportedly because Tapie was Minister of Urban Affairs (ministre de la Ville) in the French g all overnment at the time. In February 1993, Credit Lyonnais sold Adidas to Robert Louis-Dreyfus, a friend of Bernard Tapie for a much broad(prenominal)er amount of money than what Tapie owed, 4. 485 billion (683. 514 million) francs rather than 2. 85 billion (434. 479 million).Tapie later sued the bank, because he mat up spoiled by the indirect sale. Robert Louis-Dreyfus became the new CEO of the company. He was also the president of Olympique de Marseille, a team Tapie had owned until 1993. Tapie filed for personal bankruptcy in 1994. He was the object of s everal lawsuits, notably associate to match fixing at the soccer club. During 19 97, he served 6 months of an 18 month prison sentence in La Sante prison in Paris. In 2005, French courts awarded Tapie a 135 million compensation (about 886 million francs). edit Post-Tapie era In 1994, combined with FIFA Youth Group, SOS Childrens Villages became the primary(prenominal) beneficiary.In 1997, Adidas AG acquired the Salomon Group who specialized in ski wear, and its official corporate name was metamorphosed to Adidas-Salomon AG because with this learning Adidas also acquired the Taylormake play company and Maxfli which allowed them to argue with Nike Golf. In 1998, Adidas sued the NCAA over their rules limiting the sizing and procedure of commercial logos on team uniforms and apparel. Adidas withdrew the suit, and the two groups established guidelines as to what three-stripe designs would be considered uses of the Adidas trademark. In 2003, Adidas filed a lawsuit in a British court challenging Fitness World Tradings use of a two-stripe motif similar to Adidass three stripes. The court govern that despite the simplicity of the mark, Fitness World s use was infringing because the public could establish a link between that use and Adidass mark. 11 In September 2004, hint English fashion designer Stella McCartney launched a joint-venture line with Adidas, establishing a long-term partnership with the corporation. This line is a sports practiseance collection for women called Adidas by Stella McCartney,12 and it has been critically acclaimed. 13 excessively in 2005, on 3 May, Adidas told the public that they sold their partner company Salomon Group for 485m to Amer Sports of Finland. In August 2005, Adidas declared its intention to buy British rival Reebok for $3. 8 billion (US). This takeover was completed with partnership in January 20061 and meant that the company will have business sales closer to those of Nike in North America.The acquisition of Reebok will also allow Adidas to compete with Nike worldwide as the number two athletic sho e practicer in the world. 14 Adidas has corporate headquarters in Germany, and many other business locations around the world such as Hong Kong, Toronto, Taiwan, England, Japan, Australia and Spain. main(prenominal)ly sold in the U. S. , Adidas makes lots of assets from these countries and is expanding to much oversea countries. In 2005, Adidas introduced the Adidas 1, the first ever production shoe to utilize a micro wait onor. Dubbed by the company The Worlds First Intelligent Shoe, it features a micro runor capable of performing 5 million calculations per punt that automatically adjusts the shoes aim of cushioning to suit its surround.The shoe requires a small, user-replaceable battery that lasts for approximately 100 hours of running. On 25 November 2005, Adidas released a new version of the Adidas 1 with an increased range of cushioning, allowing the shoe to go softer or firmer, and a new motor with 153 percent more than(prenominal) torque. citation needed On 11 April 2 006, Adidas announced an 11-year band to become the official NBA apparel provider. They will make NBA, NBDL, and WNBA jerseys and products as tumefy as team-coloured versions of the Superstar basketball shoe. This deal (worth over $400 million) takes the place of the previous 10-year Reebok deal that was put in place in 2001. edit Products edit RunningAdidas currently manufactures several running shoes, including the adiStar ascendance 5, the adiStar Ride (the replacement for the adiStar Cushion 6), the Supernova Sequence (the replacement for the Supernova Control 10), and the Supernova Cushion 7 (which will soon be replaced by the Supernova Glide), among others. In addition, their performance apparel is widely used by runners. Adidas also uses kangaroo leather to make their more expensive shoes. 1516 edit Association football unitary of the main focuses of Adidas is football kit and associated equipment. Adidas also provides apparel and equipment for all teams in Major League S occer. Adidas lie a major company in the bring out of team kits for international football teams. Current examples include Russia, France, Germany, Greece, Romania, Argentina, Spain, Mexico, South Africa, Japan and Nigeria.Adidas also makes reviewer kits that are used in international competition and by many countries and leagues in the world. In the United States, referees wear the Adidas kits in MLS matches even though the primary referee supplier is Official Sports. The company has been an innovator in the area of footwear for the sport with notable examples including development of the Copa Mondial moulded boot used for matches on firm dry pitches for almost forty years. The studded equivalent was named World cup follow in celebration of the 1978 tournament won by Argentina, one of the nations it supplied at the time. A few of the famous club football teams of hich are currently sponsored by Adidas are substantive Madrid, Chelsea, River Plate, Liver administer, Marseille, Universidad de Chile, Bayern Munich, Schalke 04, Benfica, Milan, Wolfsburg,Galatasaray,Panathinaikos, and Palmeiras, among others. Adidas became renowned for advancing the Predator boot design authentic by ex-Liverpool and Australian international player Craig Johnston. This design featured a ribbed rubber structure for the upper leather of the shoe, used to accent the thrust of the ball when struck highly skilled players claimed they were able to curve the flight of the ball more easily when wearing this new contoured design. citation neededThe Predator also features the Craig Johnston-invented Traxion sole.FIFA, the world governing body of football, commissioned specially designed footballs for use in its own World Cup tournaments to favour more attacking play. The balls supplied for the 2006 World Cup were particular noteworthy for their ability to travel further than previous types when struck, leading to longer range stopping point strikes that were intended to increase the number of goals scored. Goalkeepers were believed to be less(prenominal) comfortable with the design, claiming it would move significantly and unpredictably in flight. edit Tennis Adidas has sponsored tennis players and recently introduced a new line of tennis racquets. While the Feather is made for the regular player, and the Response for the club player, Adidas targets the tournament player with the 12. 2 oz Barricade tour toughie. 17 Adidas sponsors the following professional players Jo-Wilfried Tsonga, Dinara Safina, Ana Ivanovic, Daniela Hantuchova, Andy Murray, Fernando Verdasco, Gilles Simon, Marcos Baghdatis, Fernando Gonzalez, Marat Safin, and upcoming players like Melanie Oudin, Sorana Cirstea and Grigor Dimitrov. Adidas tennis apparel contains the ClimaCool technology found in other athletic jerseys and shoes. 18 In Cincinnati, at the ATP Tennis Tournament in Mason, they have also sponsored the ball-boy and ball-girl uniforms. edit Golf In 1997, Adidas purchased TaylorMa de. The image and focus of TaylorMade was redirected shortly after the acquisition to take over the driver commercialise. The company succeeded in achieving this goal in late 2004 when it formally became the No. 1 driver in golf.On 14 October 2008, Adidas, by its subsidiary TaylorMade, acquired Ashworth for $72 million, assuming $46. 3 million in debt. 19 edit Cricket In the 1990s, Adidas signed the world No. 1 batsman Sachin Tendulkar and made shoes for him. 1 He is still wearing Adidas shoes when he plays matches. Adidas even made activeness figures after Sachin Tendulkar. In 2008, Adidas made their move into English cricket market by sponsoring English batting star Kevin Pietersen after the cancellation of his lifetime deal with Woodworm, when they ran into financial difficulties. 20 The following year they signed up fellow England player Ian Bell and Indian Player Ravindra Jadeja.Having made cricket footware for many years, the company finally entered the field of bat manufac ture in 2008 and their products are purchasable in the Incurza, Pellara and Libro ranges Adidas also manufactures the uniforms worn by both the England cricket team and the Australian cricket team. In 2008 and 2009 in both the seasons of the Indian Premier League (IPL), it took up the sponsorship of the Mumbai Indians and the Delhi Daredevils. In 2009, Adidas signed Sachin Tendulkar and started sponsoring his bat. It created a new bat Adidas ST for him and Adidas KP for Kevin Pietersen, the same year. Now both of them use their personalized bats in cricket. edit Basketball Adidas has been a longtime basketball shoe manufacturer and is one of the leading basketball brands in the world. They are most famous for their iconic Superstar and Pro Model shoes, affectionately known as shelltoes for their stylized hard rubber toe box.These were made very ordinary in the 1980s hip hop streetwear scene alongside Adidas stripe-sided polyester suits. Adidas is also the current outfitter of all 30 franchises in the National Basketball Association (replacing the Reebok brand after the merger) and sponsors numerous players past and present like Kareem Abdul-Jabbar and Tracy McGrady, as well as Dwight Howard, Chauncey Billups, Derrick Rose, Kevin Garnett, Michael Beasley, Josh Smith, Tim Duncan, and Candace Parker. edit L acrosse In 2007, Adidas announced the future production of lacrosse equipment, and will sponsor the Adidas National Lacrosse Classic in July 2008 for the top 600 high school underclassmen lacrosse players in the United States. 21 edit rugger Adidas make rugby balls and other rugby gear. They are the current kit and ball supplier to the New Zealand All Blacks, Irish Munster Rugby, and the Argentinian Pumas, among others. edit Gymnastics Since 2000, adidas has provided mens and womens gymnastics wear for squad USA, through USA Gymnastics. In 2006, adidas gymnastics leatards for women and adidas mens comp shirts, gymnastics pants and gymnastics shorts have be en available in the USA, with seasonal leotards offered for Spring, Summer, Fall and Holidays. Starting in 2009, adidas gymnastics wear has been available worldwide through GK Elite Sportswear. 22 edit SkateboardingAdidas SB (Skateboarding) are shoes made specifically for skateboarding. Many of the shoes Adidas previously made were redesigned for skateboarding. edit Accessories Adidas also designs and makes watches, eyewear, bags, baseball caps, and socks. pic pic Adidas Fresh Impact Limited Edition As well, Adidas has a branded range of male and female deodorants, perfumes, aftershave and lotions. edit Marketing Adidas, like other sports brands is believed to engender high consumer brand loyalty. Brand loyalty towards Adidas, Nike and several other sportswear brands was examined in a recent study. 23 The study found consumers did not exhibit unduly high loyalty towards such brands.During the mid to late 1990s, Adidas divided the brand into three main groups with each a separate fo cus Adidas Performance was designed to control their devotion to the athlete Adidas Originals was designed to focus on fashion and life-style and Style Essentials, with the main group within this one being Y-3. Impossible is energy is the current mainstream trade slogan for Adidas. This campaign was developed by 180/TBWA based in Amsterdam but also with significant work being done by TBWA/Chiat/Day in San Francisco particularly for its basketball campaign Believe In Five. TBWAChiatDay commissioned Zane Peach24 to produce images for 2007 international ad campaign. edit Sponsorship Main word List of Adidas sponsorships Adidas are the main sponsor and kit supplier of the highly successful New Zealand national rugby team, the All Blacks.Adidas also are the kit supplier to the Argentina Pumas, to the French Stade Francais, and the Irish Munster Rugby team and the United States Eagles. Adidas are the main sponsors and kit sponsors of the successful Australian Cricket Team and the Eng land Cricket Team. They are also the main sponsors of the Indian cricketers Sachin Tendulkar and Virender Sehwag and English cricketers Kevin Pietersen and Ian Bell. Adidas are the main sponsors of Australian Domestic Cricket Competitions Pura Cup, KFC Twenty20 Big Bash, Ford Ranger One Day Cup. They are sponsors of the Indian Premier League teams Delhi Daredevils and Mumbai Indians. Adidas also sponsors and produces apparel for the Gold Coast Titans rugby league clubs in the Australian National Rugby League (NRL) competition.Adidas is the longstanding kit provider to the Germany national football team, a sponsorship that began in 1954 and is contracted to continue until at least 2018. Sponsoring also the Mexican, French and Spanish National Football Teams and from 2010 will sponsor the Scotland national football team. 25 Adidas are very active at sponsoring top football clubs such as Real Madrid, Liverpool, AC Milan, Palmeiras, Bayern Munich, Chelsea, Marseille, AFC Ajax, Schalke 04, Galatasaray, Benfica, Newcastle, River Plate, Besiktas, Fenerbahce, UANL Tigres, Panathinaikos, Litex Lovech, Slavia Sofia, AIK, Djurgardens IF, Brondby IF, IFK Goteborg, Al-Ahly, Al-Hilal, Ahli Jeddah, Universidad de Chile, and the Colombian football teams Los Millonarios, Deportivo Cali, and Atletico Nacional.Adidas and Major League Soccer (MLS) announced a 10-year sponsorship agreement in November 2004 to make Adidas the official athletic sponsor and accredited product supplier for the league, and to work together to create a developmental league for MLS. 26 Adidas also sponsors events such as the London Marathon. For the 2008 Summer Olympics in Beijing, China, Adidas played out 70 million sponsoring the event, amid criticisms. 27 Adidas has also been marketing in NASCAR, sponsoring big name drivers such as Dale Earnhardt, Jr. and Tony Stewart. edit Corporate information edit Current executive board CEO Adidas-group Herbert Hainer Finance Adidas-group Robin J. Stalker CEO Adidas brand Erich Stamminger Global Operations Adidas-group Glenn S. Bennett edit Former focus CEO (1993-2002) Robert Louis-Dreyfus. edit Financial information Financial entropy in millions of euros28 Year picedit Idea More common and accepted definitions of Supply Chain counseling are Supply Chain Management is the systemic, strategic coordination of the traditionalistic business operate ons and the tactics across these business functions within a particular company and across businesses within the hang on train, for the purposes of improving the long-term performance of the mortal companies and the ply kitchen stove as a whole (Mentzer et al, 2001). 1 Global Supply Chain Forum Supply Chain Management is the integration of key business processes across the fork out drawing string for the purpose of adding abide by for guests and stakeholders (Lambert, 2008)2. According to the Council of Supply Chain Management Professionals (CSCMP), Supply reach forethought encompasses the planning and precaution of all activities wantd in sourcing, procurance, conversion, and logistics charge. It also includes the crucial components of coordination and collaboration with channel partners, which can be suppliers, intermediaries, third-party returns providers, and customers. In essence, translate chemical chain management integrates sum and make management within and across companies.More recently, the loosely coupled, self-organizing profit of businesses that cooperate to provide product and good offerings has been called the Extended Enterprise. A supply chain, as distant to supply chain management, is a set of organizations directly linked by one or more of the upstream and downstream ascends of products, services, finances, and information from a pedigree to a customer. Managing a supply chain is supply chain management (Mentzer et al. , 2001). 3 Supply chain management software includes tools or modules used to execute supply chain tr ansactions, manage supplier relationships and control associated business processes.Supply chain event management (abbreviated as SCEM) is a consideration of all possible events and factors that can split up a supply chain. With SCEM possible scenarios can be created and solutions devised. edit Supply chain management problems Supply chain management must address the following problems distribution Network Configuration number, location and network missions of suppliers, production facilities, distribution centers, warehouses, cross-docks and customers. Distribution Strategy questions of operating control (centralized, decentralized or shared) delivery scheme, e. g. , direct shipment, pool point shipping, cross docking, DSD (direct store delivery), closed loop shipping mode of carry-over, e. g. motor carrier, including truckload, LTL, parcel railroad intermodal transport, including TOFC (trailer on flatcar) and COFC (container on flatcar) ocean freight airfreight permutation outline (e. g. , pull, push or hybrid) and transportation control (e. g. , owner-operated, private carrier, common carrier, contract carrier, or 3PL). Trade-Offs in Logistical Activities The above activities must be well coordinated in order to achieve the lowest total logistics equal. Trade-offs may increase the total cost if only one of the activities is optimized. For example, full truckload (FTL) rates are more economical on a cost per pallet bum than less than truckload (LTL) shipments.If, however, a full truckload of a product is ordered to reduce transportation costs, there will be an increase in inventory holding costs which may increase total logistics costs. It is therefore imperative to take a systems sexual climax when planning logistical activities. These trade-offs are key to developing the most efficient and effective Logistics and SCM strategy. Information Integration of processes through the supply chain to share valuable information, including make signals, forecasts, inventory, transportation, potential collaboration, etc. Inventory Management Quantity and location of inventory, including raw materials, work-in-progress (WIP) and finished goods. Cash-Flow Arranging the payment impairment and methodologies for exchanging funds across entities within the supply chain.Supply chain execution means managing and coordinating the action of materials, information and funds across the supply chain. The flow is bi-directional. edit Activities/functions Supply chain management is a cross-function approach including managing the movement of raw materials into an organization, certain aspects of the innate processing of materials into finished goods, and the movement of finished goods out of the organization and toward the end-consumer. As organizations get hold of to focus on core competencies and becoming more flexible, they reduce their ownership of raw materials sources and distribution channels. These functions are increasely being outs ourced to other entities that can perform the activities better or more cost effectively.The effect is to increase the number of organizations involved in satisfying customer withdraw, while reducing management control of daily logistics operations. Less control and more supply chain partners led to the creation of supply chain management concepts. The purpose of supply chain management is to improve trust and collaboration among supply chain partners, thus improving inventory profile and the velocity of inventory movement. Several models have been proposed for apprehensiveness the activities inevitable to manage material movements across organizational and functional boundaries. SCOR is a supply chain management model promoted by the Supply Chain Council. Another model is the SCM Model proposed by the Global Supply Chain Forum (GSCF).Supply chain activities can be grouped into strategic, tactical, and operational take aims . The CSCMP has adopted The American productivity & Q uality Center (APQC) Process Classification FrameworkSM a high- direct, industry-neutral enterprise process model that allows organizations to see their business processes from a cross-industry viewpoint4. edit Strategic Strategic network optimization, including the number, location, and size of warehousing, distribution centers, and facilities. Strategic partnerships with suppliers, distributors, and customers, creating conversation channels for critical information and operational improvements such as cross docking, direct shipping, and third-party logistics. Product life cycle management, so that new and existing products can be optimally integrate into the supply chain and capacity management activities. Information technoloy chain operations. Where-to-make and what-to-make-or-buy decisions. Aligning boilers suit organizational strategy with supply strategy. It is for long term and needs resource comittement. edit Tactical Sourcing contracts and other purchasing decisi ons. Production decisions, including contracting, scheduling, and planning process definition. Inventory decisions, including quantity, location, and quality of inventory. Transportation strategy, including frequency, routes, and contracting. Benchmarking of all operations against competitors and implementation of best practices throughout the enterprise. Milestone payments. Focus on customer demand. edit Operational Daily production and distribution planning, including all nodes in the supply chain. Production scheduling for each manufacturing facility in the supply chain (minute by minute). Demand planning and forecasting, coordinating the demand forecast of all customers and overlap the forecast with all suppliers. Sourcing planning, including current inventory and forecast demand, in collaboration with all suppliers. Inbound operations, including transportation from suppliers and receiving inventory. Production operations, including the consumption of materials and f low of finished goods. outward-bound operations, including all fulfillment activities, warehousing and transportation to customers. Order promising, storeying for all constraints in the supply chain, including all suppliers, manufacturing facilities, distribution centers, and other customers. edit Supply chain management Organizations increasingly find that they must rely on effective supply chains, or networks, to successfully compete in the spherical market and networked economy. 5 In scratch Druckers (1998) new management paradigms, this concept of business relationships extends beyond traditional enterprise boundaries and seeks to organize entire business processes throughout a value chain of binary companies.During the past decades, globalization, outsourcing and information technology have enabled many organizations, such as Dell and Hewlett Packard, to successfully operate solid collaborative supply networks in which each specialized business partner focuses on only a fe w key strategic activities (Scott, 1993). This inter-organizational supply network can be acknowledged as a new form of organization. However, with the complicated interactions among the players, the network structure fits neither market nor hierarchy categories (Powell, 1990). It is not clear what kind of performance impacts different supply network structures could have on firms, and little is known about the coordination conditions and trade-offs that may exist among the players. From a systems perspective, a complex network structure can be decomposed into separate component firms (Zhang and Dilts, 2004).Traditionally, companies in a supply network concentrate on the inputs and outputs of the processes, with little concern for the internal management working of other individual players. Therefore, the choice of an internal management control structure is known to impact local firm performance (Mintzberg, 1979). In the 21st century, changes in the business environment have cont ributed to the development of supply chain networks. First, as an outcome of globalization and the proliferation of multinational companies, joint ventures, strategic alliances and business partnerships, significant success factors were identified, complementing the earlier Just-In-Time, tenuous Manufacturing and Agile Manufacturing practices. 6 Second, technological changes, particularly the dramatic fall in information communication costs, which are a significant component of transaction costs, have led to changes in coordination among the members of the supply chain network (Coase, 1998). Many researchers have recognized these kinds of supply network structures as a new organization form, using terms such as Keiretsu, Extended Enterprise, Virtual Corporation, Global Production Network, and Next Generation Manufacturing System. 7 In general, such a structure can be define as a group of semi-independent organizations, each with their capabilities, which collaborate in ever-changi ng constellations to serve one or more markets in order to achieve some business goal specific to that collaboration (Akkermans, 2001).The security management system for supply chains is severalized in ISO/IEC 28000 and ISO/IEC 28001 and related standards published jointly by ISO and IEC. edit Developments in Supply Chain Management Six major movements can be observed in the development of supply chain management studies Creation, Integration, and Globalization (Lavassani et al. , 2008a), Specialization Phases One and Two, and SCM 2. 0. 1. Creation Era The term supply chain management was first coined by a U. S. industry consultant in the early(a) 1980s. However, the concept of a supply chain in management was of great importance long before, in the early 20th century, especially with the creation of the assembly line.The characteristics of this era of supply chain management include the need for large-scale changes, re-engineering, downsizing driven by cost reduction programs, a nd widespread attention to the Japanese practice of management. 2. Integration Era This era of supply chain management studies was highlighted with the development of Electronic Data append (EDI) systems in the 1960s and developed through the 1990s by the introduction of Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) systems. This era has continued to develop into the 21st century with the expansion of internet-based collaborative systems. This era of supply chain evolution is characterized by both increasing value-adding and cost reductions through integration. 3. Globalization EraThe third movement of supply chain management development, the globalization era, can be characterized by the attention given to global systems of supplier relationships and the expansion of supply chains over national boundaries and into other continents. Although the use of global sources in the supply chain of organizations can be traced back several decades (e. g. , in the oil industry), it was not until the lat e 1980s that a considerable number of organizations started to integrate global sources into their core business. This era is characterized by the globalization of supply chain management in organizations with the goal of increasing their competitive advantage, value-adding, and reducing costs through global sourcing. 4.Specialization EraPhase One Outsourced Manufacturing and Distribution In the 1990s industries began to focus on core competencies and adopted a specialization model. Companies abandoned vertical integration, sold off non-core operations, and outsourced those functions to other companies. This changed management requirements by extending the supply chain well beyond company walls and distributing management across specialized supply chain partnerships. This transition also re-focused the fundamental perspectives of each respective organization. OEMs became brand owners that needed deep visibility into their supply base. They had to control the entire supply chain from above instead of from within.Contract manufacturers had to manage bills of material with different part numbering schemes from multiple OEMs and fight back customer requests for work -in-process visibility and vendor-managed inventory (VMI). The specialization model creates manufacturing and distribution networks composed of multiple, individual supply chains specific to products, suppliers, and customers who work together to design, manufacture, distribute, market, sell, and service a product. The set of partners may change according to a given market, region, or channel, resulting in a proliferation of trading partner environments, each with its own ridiculous characteristics and demands. 5.Specialization EraPhase Two Supply Chain Management as a Service Specialization within the supply chain began in the 1980s with the inception of transportation brokerages, warehouse management, and non-asset-based carriers and has matured beyond transportation and logistics into aspects of s upply planning, collaboration, execution and performance management. At any given moment, market forces could demand changes from suppliers, logistics providers, locations and customers, and from any number of these specialized musicians as components of supply chain networks. This variability has significant effects on the supply chain infrastructure, from the foundation layers of establishing and managing the electronic communication between the trading partners to more complex requirements including the configuration of the processes and work flows that are essential to the management of the network itself.Supply chain specialization enables companies to improve their overall competencies in the same way that outsourced manufacturing and distribution has done it allows them to focus on their core competencies and assemble networks of specific, best-in-class partners to contribute to the overall value chain itself, thereby increasing overall performance and efficiency. The abilit y to quickly obtain and deploy this domain-specific supply chain expertise without developing and maintaining an entirely unique and complex competency in house is the leading reason why supply chain specialization is gaining popularity. Outsourced technology hosting for supply chain solutions debuted in the late 1990s and has taken root word primarily in transportation and collaboration categories.This has progressed from the Application Service Provider (ASP) model from approximately 1998 through 2003 to the On-Demand model from approximately 2003-2006 to the Software as a Service (SaaS) model currently in focus today. 6. Supply Chain Management 2. 0 (SCM 2. 0) Building on globalization and specialization, the term SCM 2. 0 has been coined to describe both the changes within the supply chain itself as well as the evolution of the processes, methods and tools that manage it in this new era. Web 2. 0 is defined as a trend in the use of the World Wide Web that is meant to increase c reativity, information sharing, and collaboration among users.At its core, the common attribute that Web 2. 0 brings is to help navigate the vast amount of information available on the Web in order to find what is being sought. It is the notion of a usable pathway. SCM 2. 0 follows this notion into supply chain operations. It is the pathway to SCM results, a combination of the processes, methodologies, tools and delivery options to guide companies to their results quickly as the complexity and speed of the supply chain increase due to the effects of global competition, rapid price fluctuations, surging oil prices, short product life cycles, expanded specialization, near-/far- and off-shoring, and talent scarcity. pic This article appears to contain a large number of buzzwords. Specific concerns can be found on the Talk page. Please improve this article if you can. (February 2010) SCM 2. 0 leverages turn up solutions designed to rapidly deliver results with the agility to quickly manage future change for continuous flexibility, value and success. This is delivered through competency networks composed of best-of-breed supply chain domain expertise to understand which elements, both operationally and organizationally, are the critical few that deliver the results as well as through intimate understanding of how to manage these elements to achieve desired results.Finally, the solutions are delivered in a variety of options, such as no-touch via business process outsourcing, mid-touch via managed services and software as a service (SaaS), or high touch in the traditional software deployment model. edit Supply chain business process integration Successful SCM requires a change from managing individual functions to integrating activities into key supply chain processes. An example scenario the purchasing department places orders as requirements become known. The marketing department, responding to customer demand, communicates with several distributors and retail ers as it attempts to subside ways to satisfy this demand. Information shared between supply chain partners can only be fully leveraged through process integration.Supply chain business process integration involves collaborative work between buyers and suppliers, joint product development, common systems and shared information. According to Lambert and Cooper (2000), operating an integrated supply chain requires a continuous information flow. However, in many companies, management has reached the conclusion that optimizing the product flows cannot be accomplished without implementing a process approach to the business. The key supply chain processes stated by Lambert (2004) 8 are client relationship management Customer service management Demand management Order fulfillment Manufacturing flow management Supplier relationship management Product development and commercialization Returns management Much has been written about demand management.Best-in-Class companies have simil ar characteristics, which include the following a) Internal and external collaboration b) Lead time reduction initiatives c) Tighter feedback from customer and market demand d) Customer train forecasting One could suggest other key critical supply business processes which combine these processes stated by Lambert such as a. Customer service management b. Procurement c. Product development and commercialization d. Manufacturing flow management/support e. Physical distribution f. Outsourcing/partnerships g. Performance measurement a) Customer service management process Customer Relationship Management concerns the relationship between the organization and its customers. Customer service is the source of customer information. It also provides the customer with real time information on scheduling and product availability through interfaces with the companys production and distribution operations.Successful organizations use the following steps to build customer relationships coif mut ually satisfying goals for organization and customers establish and maintain customer rapport produce positive feelings in the organization and the customers b) Procurement process Strategic plans are drawn up with suppliers to support the manufacturing flow management process and the development of new products. In firms where operations extend globally, sourcing should be managed on a global basis. The desired outcome is a win-win relationship where both parties benefit, and a reduction in time required for the design cycle and product development. Also, the purchasing function develops rapid communication systems, such as electronic data interchange (EDI) and Internet linkage to convey possible requirements more rapidly.Activities related to obtaining products and materials from outside suppliers involve resource planning, supply sourcing, negotiation, order placement, inbound transportation, storage, handling and quality assurance, many of which include the responsibility to c oordinate with suppliers on matters of scheduling, supply continuity, hedging, and research into new sources or programs. c) Product development and commercialization Here, customers and suppliers must be integrated into the product development process in order to reduce time to market. As product life cycles shorten, the appropriate products must be developed and successfully launched with ever shorter time-schedules to remain competitive.According to Lambert and Cooper (2000), managers of the product development and commercialization process must 1. coordinate with customer relationship management to identify customer-articulated needs 2. select materials and suppliers in conjunction with procurement, and 3. develop production technology in manufacturing flow to manufacture and integrate into the best supply chain flow for the product/market combination. d) Manufacturing flow management process The manufacturing process produces and supplies products to the distribution channels b ased on past forecasts. Manufacturing processes must be flexible to respond to market changes and must accommodate mass customization.Orders are processes operating on a just-in-time (JIT) basis in minimum lot sizes. Also, changes in the manufacturing flow process lead to shorter cycle times, meaning improved responsiveness and efficiency in meeting customer demand. Activities related to planning, scheduling and supporting manufacturing operations, such as work-in-process storage, handling, transportation, and time phasing of components, inventory at manufacturing sites and maximum flexibility in the coordination of geographic and final assemblies postponement of somatogenic distribution operations. e) Physical distribution This concerns movement of a finished product/service to customers.In physical distribution, the customer is the final destination of a marketing channel, and the availability of the product/service is a vital part of each channel participants marketing effort. I t is also through the physical distribution process that the time and space of customer service become an integral part of marketing, thus it links a marketing channel with its customers (e. g. , links manufacturers, wholesalers, retailers). f) Outsourcing/partnerships This is not just outsourcing the procurement of materials and components, but also outsourcing of services that traditionally have been provided in-house. The logic of this trend is that the company will increasingly focus on those activities in the value chain where it has a distinctive advantage, and outsource everything else.This movement has been particularly evident in logistics where the provision of transport, warehousing and inventory control is increasingly subcontracted to specialists or logistics partners. Also, managing and controlling this network of partners and suppliers requires a blend of both central and local involvement. Hence, strategic decisions need to be taken centrally, with the monitoring and control of supplier performance and day-to-day amour with logistics partners being best managed at a local level. g) Performance measurement Experts found a strong relationship from the largest arcs of supplier and customer integration to market share and profitability.Taking advantage of supplier capabilities and emphasizing a long-term supply chain perspective in customer relationships can both be correlated with firm performance. As logistics competency becomes a more critical factor in creating and maintaining competitive advantage, logistics measurement becomes increasingly important because the difference between profitable and unprofitable operations becomes more narrow. A. T. Kearney Consultants (1985) noted that firms engaging in comprehensive performance measurement realized improvements in overall productivity. According to experts, internal measures are generally collected and analyzed by the firm including 1. Cost 2. Customer Service 3. Productivity measures 4.Asset m easurement, and 5. Quality. External performance measurement is examined through customer perception measures and best practice benchmarking, and includes 1) customer perception measurement, and 2) best practice benchmarking. Components of Supply Chain Management are 1. Standardization 2. Postponement 3. Customization edit Theories of supply chain management Currently there is a gap in the literature available on supply chain management studies there is no theoretical support for explaining the existence and the boundaries of supply chain management. A few authors such as Halldorsson, et al. (2003), Ketchen and Hult (2006) and Lavassani, et al. 2008b) have tried to provide theoretical foundations for different areas related to supply chain by employing organizational theories. These theories include Resource-Based View (RBV) Transaction Cost Analysis (TCA) Knowledge-Based View (KBV) Strategic Choice scheme (SCT) Agency Theory (AT) Institutional theory (InT) Systems Theory (S T) Network Perspective (NP) edit Supply chain sustainability Supply chain sustainability is a business issue affecting an organisations supply chain or logistics network and is frequently quantified by comparison with SECH ratings. SECH ratings are defined as social, ethical, cultural and health footprints.Consumers have become more aware of the environmental impact of their purchases and companies SECH ratings and, along with non-governmental organisations (NGOs), are setting the agenda for transitions to organically-grown foods, anti-sweatshop labour codes and locally-produced goods that support independent and small businesses. Because supply chains frequently account for over 75% of a companys carbon footprint9 many organisations are exploring how they can reduce this and thus improve their SECH rating. edit Components of supply chain management integration The management components of SCM The SCM components are the third element of the four-square circulation framework.The lev el of integration and management of a business process link is a function of the number and level, ranging from low to high, of components added to the link (Ellram and Cooper, 1990 Houlihan, 1985). Consequently, adding more management components or increasing the level of each component can increase the level of integration of the business process link. The literature on business process re-engineering,10 buyer-supplier relationships,11 and SCM12 suggests various possible components that must receive managerial attention when managing supply relationships. Lambert and Cooper (2000) identified the following components Planning and control Work structure Organization structure Product flow facility structure Information flow facility structure Management methods Power and leadership structure Risk and reward structure Culture and attitude However, a more careful examination of the existing literature13 leads to a more comprehensive understanding of what should be the key crit ical supply chain components, the branches of the previous identified supply chain business processes, that is, what kind of relationship the components may have that are related to suppliers and customers. Bowersox and Closs states that the emphasis on cooperation represents the synergism leading to the highest level of joint achievement (Bowersox and Closs, 1996).A primary level channel participant is a business that is willing to participate in the inventory ownership responsibility or assume other aspects of financial risk, thus including primary level components (Bowersox and Closs, 1996). A secondary level participant (specialized) is a business that participates in channel relationships by performing essential services for primary participants, including secondary level components, which support primary participants. Third level channel participants and components that support the primary level channel participants and are the fundamental branches of the secondary level compo nents may also be included. Consequently, Lambert and Coopers framework of supply chain components does not lead to any conclusion about what are the primary or secondary (specialized) level supply chain components (see Bowersox and Closs, 1996, p. 93).That is, what supply chain components should be viewed as primary or secondary, how should these components be structured in order to have a more comprehensive supply chain structure, and how to examine the supply chain as an integrative one (See above sections 2. 1 and 3. 1). change state Supply Chain Reverse logistics is the process of managing the return of goods. Reverse logistics is also referred to as Aftermarket Customer Services. In other words, any time money is taken from a companys sanction reserve or service logistics budget one can speak of a reverse logistics operation. edit Global supply chain management Global supply chains pose challenges regarding both quantity and value Supply and Value Chain Trends Globalization Increased cross border sourcing Collaboration for parts of value chain with low-cost providers Shared service centers for logistical and administrative functions Increasingly global operations, which require increasingly global coordination and planning to achieve global optimums interlacing problems involve also midsized companies to an increasing degree, These trends have many benefits for manufacturers because they make possible larger lot sizes, lower taxes, and better environments (culture, infrastructure, special tax zones, sophisticated OEM) for their products. Meanwhile, on top of the problems recognized in supply chain management, there will be many more challenges when the scope of supply chains is global. This is because with a supply chain of a larger scope, the lead time is much longer. Furthermore, there are more issues involved such as multi-currencies, different policies and different laws. The successive problems include1. different currencies and valuations in different countries 2. different tax laws (Tax Efficient Supply Chain Management) 3.

Thursday, May 23, 2019

Childhood is Not a Fixed Universal Experience Essay

Childhood is nattern as a social construct by sociologists, and it is definitely not a fixed universal experience. This is callable to many reasons but overall it is easy to see that not all children get to experience the same childhood and each experiences this stage of life for a different length of time. Childhood differs in many ways, in different countries, from the way they act, and the way they are treated.One way in which we can see that childhood is not a fixed universal exerence is the obvious differences between a childhood in outlandish countries and one in non-rural countries. For example, in rural countries, children be in possession of more responsibility. Sociologists found that in countries such as Bolivia once children are around the age of five years old they start to have work responsibilities both within the home, and the community. Another way in which we can see that childhood is not universal is through the presence of child poverty. everywhere 1/3 of the worlds children suffer from absolute poverty, and over 1/3 of all children in the world have to live in a dwelling with more than five people in each room, and this the stage of life that should be considered childhood ends up having none of the elements that society would railroad tie to that word.Even so, this all is difficult to argue because childhood is a social construct, meanng that it has no set definition and thus chages over time. Phillipe Aries (1962) argues that childhood as we understand it today is a new invention. For example, in the Pre-industrial times, children were seen as little adults, and they took part in the same work and play activities as the adults. They were seen as a unit of production and thus they had less lesiure time. Even so, that stage of their life was consdered as being childhood, showing us that the definition has morphed over time. Nowadays the variant of this would be very different.Overall, there are two different approaches to childhood. These are the Conventional approach and the Alternative approach.

Wednesday, May 22, 2019


Koreatown, L. A. Four miles SSW from the iconic Hollywood sign and just about the physical center of the City of Angels is Koreatown. Koreatown has the largest South Korean population alfresco of the country itself. With such a high concentration of these richly cultured peoples came many korean style restaurants and other eateries. Though in recent long time Koreatowns Korean population has declined to about 30% of the total population, it is still considered the prime place to enjoy a good dim sum or kimchi.There is a little more than a thousand Korean owned businesses in K-Town and a actually good majority of those are eateries. Being cognize for its nightlife, most of K-Towns eateries are bars and norebangs (karaoki rooms). A night out in what insiders call K-Town might begin with dinner or warm-up drinks and nibbling at a stylish cafe with giant video screens, then proceed to dancing at an exclusive nightclub or singing at a karaoke music studio until dawn (Navarro).Singing i n norebangs is a widely appreciated pass-time in the Korean community and is ordinarily accompanied with alcohol and appetizers. This pass-time is never through al sensation and it is usually done in large groups for any occasion. The alcohol of choice being makgeolli, a fermented rice wine, is usually associated with the cooking and munching of small strips of wise and crispy pork belly. Small groups of people can be seen around a table drinking, cooking the snack and conversing.Another widely appreciated restaurant showcase brought over from the Koreas, is the Korean BBQ. Essentially, it is a cook-it-yourself restaurant the cooks prepare the dishes to be cooked and then hand them out to the customer to be cooked right at their own lattice in the middle of the table. This allows the customer to cook the meat to their desired taste and gives more time to converse. Interestingly, it doesnt have to be eaten with a utensil usually there would be a plate of large lettuce leaves.It i s very common to tear off a piece of the leaf and cup it in one hand while the other picks up a piece of meat with chopsticks and models it on the leaf. If there is anything else to put on it, like a slice of mushroom, it is put on top, the leaf is rolled up and popped in the mouth. The most popular food in Korean culture is kimchi. It is make primarily from fermented napa cabbage, low red pepper powder, and various other vegetables and spices. In most asian cultures, there are many parts to a meal kimchi is usually a side-dish.The ingredients are quite cheap and the recipe is easy to follow. In low-income families, kimchi is a larger part of the meal. It is the perfect food for these families because it can easily be made in bulk and it can be kept for up to a month in the refrigerator. Kimchi is a staple of Korean society. Korea brought over a very cultured people that are very family and food involved. Food is a very important part of the Korean culture and community as a whole . Work Cited Navarro, Mireya. Its Koreatown, Jake. The New York Times. The New York Times, 08 Aug. 2004. Web. 3 Nov. 2012.